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Disease Diplomacy
http://www.disasterdiplomacy.org/disease.html

in association with
Radix:  Radical Interpretations of and Solutions for Disasters


Disease Disaster Diplomacy


Disease Eradication

The World Health Organization (WHO) runs disease control programmes which require cooperation from all countries. could the focus on health outcomes rather than diplomatic outcomes lead to as much success as possible for these programmes? Irrespective, have any linkages and networks developed through disease eradication led to non-disease-related diplomatic connections? Are there any non-WHO transboundary disease eradication programmes? The wider UN system has run "Days of Tranquility" for child vaccinations, particularly polio.

General Resources

  • Henderson, D.A. 1999. "Eradication: Lessons From the Past". MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), vol. 48, supplement 1 (31 December), pp. 16-22.

Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease)

Dracunculiasis was targeted for eradication in 1986.

  • Barry, M. 2006. "Slaying Little Dragons: Lessons From the Dracunculiasis Eradication Program". American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1-2.

  • Biswas, G., D.P. Sankara, J. Agua-Agum, and A. Maiga. 2013. "Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): eradication without a drug or a vaccine". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 68, no. 1623, paper 20120146.

  • Hopkins, D.R. and E. Ruiz-Tiben. 1991. "Strategies for Dracunculiasis Eradication". Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 533-540.

  • Hopkins, D.R., E. Ruiz-Tiben, T.K. Ruebush, N. Diallo, A. Agle, and P.C. Withers Jr. 2000. "Dracunculiasis Eradication: Delayed, Not Denied". American Journal Of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 163-168.

  • MMWR. 2002. "Progress Toward Global Dracunculiasis Eradication, June 2002". MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), vol. 51, no. 26 (13 September), pp. 810-811.

  • MMWR. 2004. "Progress Toward Global Eradication of Dracunculiasis, 2002-2003". MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), vol. 53, no. 37 (24 September), pp. 871-872.

  • MMWR. 2008. "Progress Toward Global Eradication of Dracunculiasis, January 2007-June 2008". MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), vol. 57, no. 43 (31 October), pp. 1173-1176.

  • Supplementary Agenda Item: Eradication of Dracunculiasis. 2004 (18 May). From the Fifty-Seventh World Health Assembly, Agenda Item 12.16, A57/33. WHO (World Health Organization), Geneva, Switzerland.

  • WHO. 2002. "Dracunculiasis eradication". Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 77, no. 18 (3 May), pp. 143-152.

  • WHO. 2003. "Dracunculiasis eradication". Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 78, no. 18 (2 May), pp. 146-155.

  • WHO. 2004. "Dracunculiasis eradication". Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 79, no. 16 (16 April), pp. 154-155.

Measles

Measles was targeted for eradication in 2010. In 2012, Rubella was added as part of this eradication initiative.

  • Foege, W.H. 1982. "The Global Elimination of Measles". Public Health Reports, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 402-405.

  • Hopkins, D.R., J.P. Koplan, A.R. Hinman, and J.M. Lane. 1982. "The Case For Global Measles Eradication". The Lancet, vol. 319, no. 8286, pp. 1396-1398.

  • MMWR. 2008. "Progress in Global Measles Control and Mortality Reduction, 2000-2007". MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), vol. 57, no. 48 (5 December), pp. 1303-1306.

  • Roberts, L. 2015 (May 29). "In Vietnam, an anatomy of a measles outbreak". Science, vol. 348, no. 6238, p. 958-961,963.

  • Roberts, L. 2015 (May 29). "Is measles next?" Science, vol. 348, no. 6238, p. 962.

Polio

Polio was targeted for eradication in 1988.

  • Garon, J.R. and W.A. Orenstein. 2015. "Overcoming barriers to polio eradication in conflict areas". The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1122-1124.

  • Giay, L. 2001. "Rotary International Builds Partnership for Better World Health". Global Issues, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 20-22.

  • Gostin, L.O. 2014. "Global Polio Eradication: Espionage, Disinformation, and the Politics of Vaccination". The Milbank Quarterly, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 413-417.

  • MMWR. 2006. "Resurgence of Wild Poliovirus Type 1 Transmission and Consequences of Importation -- 21 Countries, 2002--2005". MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), vol. 55, no. 6 (17 February), pp. 145-150.

  • Roberts, L. 2015 (May 29). "Is measles next?" Science, vol. 348, no. 6238, p. 962.

  • SteelFisher, G.K., R.J. Blendon, S. Guirguis, A. Brulé, N. Lasala-Blanco, M. Coleman, V. Petit, M. Ahmed, N. Mataruse, M. Corkum, M. Nisar, E. N Ben-Porath, S. Gigli, and C. Sahm. 2015. "Threats to polio eradication in high-conflict areas in Pakistan and Nigeria: a polling study of caregivers of children younger than 5 years". The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1183-1192.

  • Willyard, C. 2014 (March 6). "The eradication endgame: Researchers are developing a strategy that could put an end to polio forever". Nature, vol. 507, pp. S14-S15.

Rinderpest

Rinderpest was declared eradicated on 28 June 2011.

  • Mariner, J.C., J.A. House, C.A. Mebus, A.E. Sollod, D. Chibeu, B.A. Jones, P.L. Roeder, B. Admassu, and G.G.M. van 't Klooster. 2012. "Rinderpest Eradication: Appropriate Technology and Social Innovations". Science, vol. 337, no. 6100, pp. 1309-1312.

  • Morens, D.M., E.C. Holmes, A.S. Davis, and J.K. Taubenberger. 2011. "Global Rinderpest Eradication: Lessons Learned and Why Humans Should Celebrate Too". The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 502-505.

  • Normile, D. 2010. "Rinderpest, Deadly for Cattle, Joins Smallpox as a Vanquished Disease". Science, vol. 330, no. 6003, p. 435.

Smallpox

Smallpox was declared eradicated on 8 May 1980.

  • Barrett, S. 2003. "Diplomacy vs Disease: The History of Smallpox Eradication Shows How Diplomatic Strategies Could Help Tackle Worldwide Infectious Disease". SAISPHERE, 2003, pp. 25-27.

  • Casey, C.G., J.K. Iskander, M.H. Roper, E.E. Mast, X.-J. Wen, T.J. Török, L.E. Chapman, D.L. Swerdlow, J. Morgan, J.D. Heffelfinger, C. Vitek, S.E. Reef, L.M. Hasbrouck, I. Damon, L. Neff, C. Vellozzi, M. McCauley, R.A. Strikas, and G. Mootrey. 2005. " Adverse Events Associated With Smallpox Vaccination in the United States, January-October 2003". JAMA, vol. 294, no. 21, pp. 2734-2743.

  • Cooper, B. 2006. "Poxy models and rash decisions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 103, no. 33, pp. 12221-12222.

  • Fenner, F. 1982. "Global Eradication of Smallpox" with discussion. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 916-930.

  • Riley, S. and N.M. Ferguson. 2006. "Smallpox transmission and control: Spatial dynamics in Great Britain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 103, no. 33, pp. 12637-12642.

  • Sejvar, J.J., R.J. Labutta, L.E. Chapman, J.D. Grabenstein, J. Iskander, J.M. Lane. 2005. "Neurologic Adverse Events Associated With Smallpox Vaccination in the United States, 2002-2004" with two corrections. JAMA, vol. 294, no. 21, pp. 2744-2750.

Comment on this case study.


Health Diplomacy
(Pre-disaster and post-disaster)

Disease is one subset of health, but all health topics can be linked to diplomatic efforts. "Health Diplomacy" tends to refer to diplomatic efforts to enact international health measures, which could include examples of such efforts leading to non-health diplomatic outcomes.

Comment on this case study.


Transboundary Disease Surveillance and Control
(Including quarantine, pandemics, and epidemics.)

General Resources

  • Aginam, O. 2002. "International law and communicable diseases". Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 80, vol. 12, pp. 946-951.

  • Doyle, R.J. and N.C. Lee. 1986. "Microbes, warfare, religion, and human institutions". Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 193-200.

  • Enserink, M. 2003 (2 May). "Infectious Diseases: WHO Wants 21st-Century Reporting Regs". Science, Vol. 300. no. 5620, pp. 717-718.

  • Hardiman, M. 2003. "The revised International Health Regulations: a framework for global health security". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 21, issue 2, pp. 207-211.

  • International Health Regulations. 2005 (23 May). From the Fifty-Eighth World Health Assembly, Agenda Item 13.1, Third Report of Committee A, A58/55. WHO (World Health Organization), Geneva, Switzerland.

  • O'Connor, K., R.L. Anders, H. Balcazar, J. Ibarra, E. Perez, L. Flores, M. Ortiz, and N.H. Bean. 2008. "Prevalence of Mental Health Issues in the Borderlands: A Comparative Perspective". Hispanic Health Care International, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 140-149.

  • Suk, J.E., T. Van Cangh, J. Beauté, C. Bartels, S. Tsolova, A. Pharris, M. Ciotti, and J.C. Semenza. 2014. "The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases". Global Health Action, vol. 7, article 25287

Avian Flu

Cholera

Foodborne Disease

  • Käferstein, F.K., Y. Motarjemi, and D.W. Bettcher. 1997. "Foodborne disease control: A transnational challenge". Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 4, October-December 1997, pp. 503-510.
    From the abstract: "This article analyzes the role of foodborne disease surveillance programs, nationally and internationally, in the control of foodborne diseases."

HIV/AIDS

  • Anderson, J. and H. Spek. 2004. "HIV/AIDS and Security". GSC Quarterly, vol. 12, Spring.

  • CFR. 2005. HIV and National Security. Transcript from a panel discussion, 18 July, CFR (Council on Foreign Relations), New York and Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

  • Garrett, L. 2005. HIV and National Security: Where are the Links? Council on Foreign Relations), New York and Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

  • "Health Systems for HIV/AIDS and Other Diseases". 2001. Global Issues, vol. 6, no. 3.

  • Roberts, L. 2004. "Disease Diplomacy: The Inherent Paradox of Globalization and AIDS". Atlantic International Studies Journal, vol. 1, spring, pp. 73-88.

SARS

  • Mohrman, K. 2003. "Diplomacy in Action at the Hopkins-Nanjing Center". SAISPHERE, 2003, pp. 47-49.

Comment on this case study.


    Vaccine Diplomacy

  • Broder, S., S.L. Hoffman, and P.J. Hotez. 2001. "Cures for the Third World's problems". EMBO Reports, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 806-812.

  • Hotez, P.J. 2001. "Vaccines as Instruments of Foreign Policy". EMBO Reports, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 862-868.

  • Hotez, P.J. 2001. "Vaccine Diplomacy". Foreign Policy, May/June, pp. 68-69.

  • Hotez, P.J. 2004. "The Promise of Medical Science and Biotechnology for North Korea and the Relevance of U.S. 'Vaccine Diplomacy'". Korea Society Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 15-18.

  • Hotez, P.J. 2010. "Peace Through Vaccine Diplomacy". Science, vol. 327, no. 5971, p. 1301.

  • Hotez, P.J. 2014. "The NTDs and Vaccine Diplomacy in Latin America: Opportunities for United States Foreign Policy". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 8, no. 9, article e2922

  • Hotez, P.J. 2014. "'Vaccine Diplomacy': Historical Perspectives and Future Directions". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 8, no. 6, article e2808

  • Hotez, P.J. and T.G. Thompson. 2009. "Waging Peace through Neglected Tropical Disease Control: A US Foreign Policy for the Bottom Billion". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 3, no. 1, article e346.


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